FORTRAN is a programming language developed by IBM during the 1950s. FORTRAN was the first complete compiler and the first high-level programming language. FORTRAN was designed by John Backus for IBM, and is still used today especially for scientific applications with versions such as Fortran 90, FORTRAN 77 and FORTRAN IV.
A  FORTRAN punch card
A FORTRAN punch card


In 1953 John W. Backus submitted a proposal to IBM for a more practical alternative to assembly language for programming the IBM 704.
The IBM 704
The IBM 704

The FORTRAN team consisted of Richard Goldberg, Sheldon F. Best, Harlan Herrick, Peter Sheridan, Roy Nutt, Robert Nelson, Irving Ziller, Lois Haibt, and David Sayre, It's concept was to make it easier to enter equations into the computer.
The first FORTRAN manual (1956)
The first FORTRAN manual (1956)

While community was skeptical that the new method could out preform hand-coding, it reduced the number of statements needed by a factor of 20.Mathematician Alex Bernstein playing chess against he IBM 704. A sample Fortran 90 chess program

FORTRAN version history

-FORTRAN (Had 32 statements)
-FORTRAN II (Procedural programming support was added)
-FORTRAN III (Allowed for inline assembly code, was never released as a product)
-IBM 1401 FORTRAN (Designed for the IBM 1401 computer)
-FORTRAN IV (Removed machine-dependent features from FORTRAN II, added features such as logical data type and Boolean expressions)
-FORTRAN 66 (The first industry-standard version of FORTRAN
-FORTRAN 77 (Became the new industry-standard)
-Fortran 90 (Changed spelling from FORTRAN to Fortran, is now free-form)
-Fortran 95 (Minor revision of Fortran 90)
-Fortran 2003 (Added interoperability with the C programming language
-Fortran 2008 (Continued interoperability with the C programming language
-Fortran 2015 (Planned to be released in mid 2018)