EnaicBy: Jordan MelanconEnaic is the first electronic numerical integrator and computer, built February 15, 1946. Its purpose was for calculating artillery firing tables for the United State army's Ballistic research laboratory to help the war front so that the mortars are accurate and aiming at the right people, although it's also the first programs included a study of feasibility of the hydrogen bombs. It was announced in 1946 and it was heralded in the press as a giant brain
external image 250px-Classic_shot_of_the_ENIAC.jpg
Development and designThe computer was designed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert both of the university of Pennsylvania (U.S.A). A team of designers was assigned to assist them, Robert F. shaw (function tables), Jeffrey Chuan Chu (Divider/square-rooter), Thomas Kite Sharpless (master programmer), Arther Burks (multiplier), Harry Huskey (reader/printer), and Jack Davis (accumulator). Together in 1946 they reassigned from the university of Pennsylvania and formed the Eckert Mauchly Computer Corporation .
J. Presper Eckert
J. Presper Eckert
componentsThe computer components used to create the computer were 17,468 vacuum tubes, 7200 crystal diodes , 1500 relays , 70,000 resistors , 10,000 capacitors , and about 5,000,000 solder joints .In weighed around 30 short tons .
operation timesThe basic machine cycle was 200 microseconds or over 5,000 cycles per second for operations for a 10 digit number. In one of these cycles Enaic would write a number to a register , read a number to a register or add/subtract two numbers

ReliabilityEnaic commonly used octal base radio tubes because the decimal accumulator were made of 6SN7 flip-flops . Several tubes burned away almost everyday leaving it non functional for a few hours until repaired. In 1948 they created a special high reliable tubes except during the warm ups and the cool down periods when the heater tubes and cathodes where under the most thermal stress. Although later on engineers reduced most of these tube failures to the more acceptable rate of one or two tubes every two days. according from a interview with Eckert, "we have only been rescinding a failure every two days and we locate the problem within around 15 min."
Programming Eniac could be programmed to preform complex sequences of operation like loops, branches, and subroutines. Luckily it is able to do that complex sequences because taking a problem and putting onto a map is very complex and usually took around two weeks. after the program was figured out on paper the process of getting the program by manipulating its switches and cables could take days, although this was also followed by verification and debugging that was added by the ability to execute the program step by step.the six primary programmers were Kathleen Antonelli , Jean Bartik , Betty Holberton , Marlyn Meltzer , frances Spence , andRuth Teitelbaum ,
ImprovementsImprovementsImprovementsIn 1948 they improved the Eniac with a primitive read only stored programming mechanism. The programming that were done to the Eniac was done by Betty Jennings, Clippinger, and Adele Goldstine; it was first demonstrated as astored program computer on Sept, 16, 1948. This program also reduced the speed of the Eniac by a factor of six and eliminated the ability of parallel computation, although ut also reduced the reprogramming time to hours instead of days; and was considered a good worth of performance lost.
The web pages I used to gather my information and summarize is wikipediaI couldn't get any volume on any videos so it may not have any